History of Theology

This is a projected series of lectures on the history of Theology that I have been working on since College when I spent several years at U.C. Berkeley studying World History, Church History, Historical Theology, and Political Philosophy. During that time, I was able to map out a series of lessons on the subject of Historical Theology. The series is called The Triumph of Truth in the History of Christian Thought. There are 7 sections to the work: I. The Theology of the Early Church. II. The Theology of the Middle Ages. III. The Theology of the Reformation. IV. The Theology of the Puritan Age. V. The Theology of the Missionary Age. VI. The Theology of the Modern Church. VII. The Triumph of Reformed Theology against the Modern Heretics and Deviant Forms of Christianity. It is a comprehensive survey of the great theologians of the Church and the formulation of Christian doctrine throughout church history. I have taken many insights from such works as Philip Schaff – History of the Christian Church; Louis Berkhof – The History of Christian Doctrines; Reinhold Seeburg – History of Doctrines; James Orr – The Progress of Dogma; William Cunningham – Historical Theology; Justo Gonzalez – History of Christian Thought; Alister McGrath – Historical Theology; Steve Lawson – Pillars of Grace; Tony Lane – A Concise History of Christian Thought; and many more.

The highlights of this series in Historical Theology include the theology of Athanasius, Augustine, Martin Luther, John Calvin, the Reformed Confessions, the Westminster Standards, John Owen, Jonathan Edwards, and Francis Turretin. While there are a great many things to learn from Evangelical and Reformed theologians after the Puritans and the Reformed Scholastics, (including Hodge, Bavinck, Kuyper, Berkhof, Murray, Van Til, Frame, Beeke and others) the Puritans and the Reformed Scholastics are truly the apex of sound Biblical doctrine. And it seems to me that everything after them is downhill and full of aberrations and doctrinal errors, including much of Evangelical and Reformed theology today. For a greater understanding of the study of Theology, I have an entirely separate series of lectures on The Theology of Westminster Confession of Faith as well as a series of lessons on how to study the best of Systematic Theology. For that you can refer to the web page on The Study of Theology.

I. THE THEOLOGY OF THE EARLY CHURCH

  1. The Subject and Task of Historical Theology
  2. The Method and Divisions of Historical Theology
  3. The Development and Purpose of Historical Theology
  4. An Historical and Theological Introduction to the Early Church
  5. The Canon of Scripture and the Canon of Christian Truth
  6. Rules of Faith and Practice in the Early Church: The Apostle’s Creed and the Didache
  7. The Apostolic Fathers 1: The Men – Clement, Ignatius, Polycarp, Papias, Barnabas, and Hermas (80-150)
  8. The Apostolic Fathers 2: Their Doctrine
  9. Theological Heresies of the Early Church 1: Gnosticism, Ebionitism, Marcionism, Manichaeism
  10. Theological Heresies of the Early Church 2: Asceticism and Montanism
  11. Theological Issues in the Early Church 1: Revelation, Scripture and the Canon
  12. Theological Issues in the Early Church 2: The Doctrine of Salvation
  13. Theological Issues in the Early Church 3: The Church and the Novatian Controversy
  14. The Theology of Martyrdom and Suffering Persecution in the Early Church
  15. The Apologists 1: Justin Martyr and His Writings (100-165)
  16. The Apologists 2: Justin Martyr and His Theology
  17. The Apologists 3: The Minor Apologists – Athenagoras, Tatian, Theophilus, Minucius Felix
  18. The Apologists 4: The Minor Apologists – Their Theology and Distinctives
  19. The Anti-Gnostic Fathers 1: The Life and Theology of Irenaeus (130-202)
  20. The Anti-Gnostic Fathers 2: The Life and Theology of Tertullian (155-240)
  21. The Anti-Gnostic Fathers 3: The Life and Theology of Hippolytus (170-235)
  22. The Alexandrian Fathers 1: The Life and Theology of Clement (150-215)
  23. The Alexandrian Fathers 2: The Life and Theology of Origen (184-253)
  24. The Life and Theology of Gregory Thaumaturgus (210-275)
  25. The Distinctives of Eastern and Western Schools of Thought
  26. The Ante-Nicene Western Fathers 1: The Life and Theology of Cyprian (200-258)
  27. The Ante-Nicene Western Fathers 2: The Life and Theology of Novatian (200-258)
  28. The Ante-Nicene Western Fathers 3: The Life and Theology of Lactantius (250-325)
  29. The Ante-Nicene Western Fathers 4: The Life and Theology of Eusebius 1 (260-340)
  30. The Ante-Nicene Western Fathers 5: The Life and Theology of Eusebius 2 (260-340)
  31. The Rise and Development of Patristic Theology 1: Christian Doctrine as a System and Praxis
  32. The Rise and Development of Patristic Theology 2: The Biblical Scholarship of the Early Fathers
  33. The Rise and Development of Patristic Theology 3: Distinctives of East and West
  34. The Trinitarian Controversy 1: The Rise of Monarchianism and Arianism
  35. The Trinitarian Controversy 2: The Council of Nicaea – The Controversy over Arianism (325 AD)
  36. The Trinitarian Controversy 3: The Council of Nicaea – The Eternal Generation of the Son of God
  37. The Trinitarian Controversy 4: The Debates from Nicaea to Constantinople (325-380 AD)
  38. The Life and Theology of Athanasius 1: The Theologian (297-373)
  39. The Life and Theology of Athanasius 2: The Apologist
  40. The Imperial Theology of Christian Empire 1: Constantine the Great (272-337)
  41. The Imperial Theology of Christian Empire 2: Theodosius the Great (347-395)
  42. The Life and Theology of Ephrem the Syrian (306-373)
  43. The Life and Theology of Cyril of Jerusalem (313-386)
  44. The Cappadocian Fathers 1: Basil of Caesarea (330-380)
  45. The Cappadocian Fathers 2: Gregory of Nazianzus (330-390)
  46. The Cappadocian Fathers 3: Gregory of Nyssa (335-395)
  47. The Post-Nicene Fathers of the West 1: Hilary of Poitiers (310-367)
  48. The Post-Nicene Fathers of the West 2: Ambrose of Milan (340-397)
  49. The Post-Nicene Fathers of the East 1: Cyril of Alexandria (376-444)
  50. The Post-Nicene Fathers of the East 2: Dydimus the Blind (313-398)
  51. The Post-Nicene Fathers of the East 3: Epiphanius (320-403)
  52. The Antiochene Fathers of the East 1: The Life and Preaching of John Chrysostom (350-407)
  53. The Antiochene Fathers of the East 2: The Theology of John Chrysostom
  54. The Antiochene Fathers of the East 3: Theodore of Mopsuestia (350-428)
  55. The Antiochene Fathers of the East 4: Theodoret of Cyrus (393-460)
  56. Post-Nicene Controversies 1: The Donatist Controversy
  57. Post-Nicene Controversies 2: Iconoclasm and Idolatry
  58. Post-Nicene Controversies 3: The Rise of the Roman Papacy
  59. The Development and Theology of Monasticism 1: From the Early Church to Anthony
  60. The Development and Theology of Monasticism 2: From the Anthony to Benedict of Nursia
  61. The Pelagian Controversy 1: The History of the Debate
  62. The Pelagian Controversy 2: The Theology of Sin and Grace
  63. The Life and Theology of Jerome (347-420)
  64. The Life and Theology of Prudentius (350-420)
  65. The Life and Theology of Augustine 1: Life and Influence (354-430)
  66. The Life and Theology of Augustine 2: The Confessions
  67. The Life and Theology of Augustine 3: The Enchiridion
  68. The Life and Theology of Augustine 4: On Christian Doctrine
  69. The Life and Theology of Augustine 5: Writings on Grace
  70. The Life and Theology of Augustine 6: The City of God
  71. The Life and Theology of Augustine 7: Biblical Expositions
  72. The Life and Theology of Augustine 8: Treatise on the Trinity
  73. The Students of Augustine 1: Salvian
  74. The Students of Augustine 2: Paulus Orosius
  75. The Christological Controversy 1: The Rise of Apollinarianism and Nestorianism
  76. The Christological Controversy 2: The Council of Ephesus (431 AD)
  77. The Christological Controversy 3: The Rise of Eutychianism to the Council of Chalcedon (451 AD)
  78. The Christological Controversy 4: The Theology of Chalcedon (451 AD)
  79. The Christological Controversy 5: The Monophysite and Monothelete Sects
  80. The Theology of the Ecumenical Councils 1: Controversies
  81. The Theology of the Ecumenical Councils 2: Doctrinal Formulations
  82. The Synthesis of Patristic Thought 3: The Theology of Leo the Great (400-461)
  83. The Synthesis of Patristic Thought 4: The Life and Theology of Boethius (477-525)

II. THE THEOLOGY OF THE MIDDLE AGES

  1. Historical and Theological Introduction to the Middle Ages 1: Historical Overview
  2. Historical and Theological Introduction to the Middle Ages 2: Theological Contours
  3. Justinian and the Theology of Christian Empire 1: The Reign of Justinian (482-565)
  4. Justinian and the Theology of Christian Empire 2: The Justinian Code
  5. Gregory the Great and the Western Synthesis (540-604)
  6. Isidore of Seville and the Western Synthesis (560-636)
  7. Venerable Bede and the Western Synthesis (670-735)
  8. The Rise of Eastern Orthodoxy and Byzantine Theology
  9. The Early Byzantine Theologians 1: Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite (450-510)
  10. The Early Byzantine Theologians 2: Leontius of Byzantium (485-543)
  11. The Early Byzantine Theologians 3: Maximus the Confessor (580-662)
  12. The Early Byzantine Theologians 4: John of Damascus (675-750)
  13. The Early Byzantine Theologians 5: Simeon the New Theologian (950-1022)
  14. The Carolingian Renaissance 1: Charlemagne’s life and influence (748-814)
  15. The Carolingian Renaissance 2: Charlemagne’s court and scholars
  16. Early Medieval Theology in the West 1: Alcuin of York (735-804)
  17. Early Medieval Theology in the West 2: Claudius of Turin (760-827)
  18. Early Medieval Theology in the West 3: Agobard of Lyon (780-840)
  19. Early Medieval Theology in the West 4: Gottschalk of Orbais (808-868)
  20. Early Medieval Theology in the West 5: John Scotus Erigena (815-877)
  21. Early Medieval Conflicts 1: On God – The Predestination Controversy
  22. Early Medieval Conflicts 2: On Christ – The Adoptionist Controversy
  23. Early Medieval Conflicts 3: On the Church – The Eucharistic Controversy
  24. Early Medieval Conflicts 4: On Worship – The Iconoclastic Controversy
  25. The Signs of Apostasy in Early Medieval Theology 1: The Downgrade of Scriptural Authority
  26. The Signs of Apostasy in Early Medieval Theology 2: The Rise of Papal Supremacy
  27. The Signs of Apostasy in Early Medieval Theology 3: The Snare of Sacramental Theology
  28. The Signs of Apostasy in Early Medieval Theology 4: The East-West Schism
  29. The Beginnings of Scholastic Theology 1: Anselm (1033-1109)
  30. The Beginnings of Scholastic Theology 2: Anselm
  31. The Beginnings of Scholastic Theology 3: Peter Abelard (1080-1142)
  32. The Beginnings of Scholastic Theology 4: Hugh of St.Victor (1095-1140)
  33. The Beginnings of Scholastic Theology 5: John of Salisbury and the School of Chartres (1110-1180)
  34. The Beginnings of Scholastic Theology 6: Peter Lombard (1096-1160)
  35. The Devotional Theology of Bernard of Clairvaux 1 (1090-1153)
  36. The Devotional Theology of Bernard of Clairvaux 2
  37. The History and Theology of the Crusades 1: The Muslim Menace (620-1100)
  38. The History and Theology of the Crusades 2: The Crusading Mission (1095-1300)
  39. Threats to Medieval Christendom 1: Roman Catholicism
  40. Threats to Medieval Christendom 2: Wars and Factions
  41. Threats to Medieval Christendom 3: Cults and Heresies (The Bogomiles, the Cathari, and the Albigenses)
  42. The Waldensian Movement 1: Peter Waldo (1140-1205)
  43. The Waldensian Movement 2: The Persecution of the Waldensians (1179-The Reformation)
  44. Francis and the Franciscan Movement (1180-1226)
  45. The University Movement and High Scholasticism
  46. Popular theology in the High Middle Ages
  47. The Scholastic Enterprise 1: Alexander of Hales (1185-1245)
  48. The Scholastic Enterprise 2: Bonaventure (1221-1274)
  49. The Scholastic Enterprise 3: Albert the Great (1200-1280)
  50. The Scholastic Enterprise 4: Thomas Aquinas (1225-1275)
  51. The Theology of Thomas Aquinas 1: The Summa Theologica
  52. The Theology of Thomas Aquinas 2: The Summa Contra Gentiles
  53. The Synthesis of Scholastic Theology 1: A Form of Apostasy
  54. The Synthesis of Scholastic Theology 2: A Form of Antichrist
  55. The Theology of Later Scholasticism 1: Duns Scotus (1266-1308)
  56. The Theology of Later Scholasticism 2: William of Occam (1287-1347)
  57. The Theology of Later Scholasticism 3: Thomas Bradwardine (1300-1349)
  58. Early Renaissance Theology 1 – Dante (1265-1321)
  59. Early Renaissance Theology 2 – Petrarch (1304-1374)
  60. The Breakdown of the Scholastic Synthesis 1: Nominalism
  61. The Breakdown of the Scholastic Synthesis 2: Conciliarism
  62. The Breakdown of the Scholastic Synthesis 3: the Papal Conflict
  63. The Roman Papacy and Antichrist 1: Papal Supremacy
  64. The Roman Papacy and Antichrist 2: The Roman Inquisition
  65. The Roman Papacy and Antichrist 3: Wars and Abominations
  66. Late Medieval Mysticism 1 – The Germans: Meister Eckhart (1260-1328)
  67. Late Medieval Mysticism 2 – The Germans: John Tauler (1300-1361)
  68. Late Medieval Mysticism 3 – The English: Richard Rolle (1300-1349)
  69. Late Medieval Mysticism 4 – The English: Walter Hilton (1340-1396)
  70. Late Medieval Reformers 1: The Life and Theology of John Wycliffe (1320-1384)
  71. Late Medieval Reformers 2: The Influence of John Wycliffe
  72. Late Medieval Reformers 3: William Langland a Disciple of Wycliffe (1332-1386)
  73. Late Medieval Reformers 4: Geoffrey Chaucer a Disciple of Wycliffe (1340-1400)
  74. Late Medieval Reformers 5:The Pearl Poet a Disciple of Wycliffe (135-1410)
  75. Late Medieval Reformers 6: The Life and Theology of Jan Hus (1372-1415)
  76. Late Medieval Reformers 7: The Bohemian/Hussite Wars (1419-1434)
  77. The Devotional Theology of the Brethren of the Common Life
  78. The Devotional Theology of Geert Groote (1340-1384)
  79. The Devotional Theology of Thomas Kempis (1380-1471)
  80. Forerunners of the Reformation 1: The Life and Theology of Wessel Gansfort (1419-1489)
  81. Forerunners of the Reformation 2: The Life and Theology of Savonarola (1452-1498)
  82. Catholic Theologians before the Reformation 1: Nicholas of Cusa 1401-1464)
  83. Catholic Theologians before the Reformation 2: Gabriel Biel (142-1495)
  84. Catholic Theologians before the Reformation 3: Johann von Staupitz (1460-1524)
  85. Catholic Theologians before the Reformation 4: Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536)
  86. Catholic Theologians before the Reformation 5: Conrad Celtes and Rudolph Agricola

III. THE THEOLOGY OF THE REFORMATION

  1. Historical and Theological Introduction to the Reformation, Pt.1
  2. Historical and Theological Introduction to the Reformation, Pt.2
  3. The Theology of Martin Luther 1: His Life and Influence
  4. The Theology of Martin Luther 2: Preaching and Teaching
  5. The Theology of Martin Luther 3: Early Polemics – 3 Treatises
  6. The Theology of Martin Luther 4: The Bondage of the Will
  7. The Theology of Martin Luther 5: Commentary on Galatians
  8. The Theology of Martin Luther 6: Luther’s Theology of the Cross
  9. The Theology of Huldreich Zwingli 1: The First Reformed Theologian
  10. The Theology of Huldreich Zwingli 2: On True Religion
  11. The Theology of Huldreich Zwingli 3:
  12. The Early Anabaptists 1: Sattler, Hoffman, Hubmaier, Hutter
  13. The Early Anabaptists 2: Menno Simons
  14. The Theology of Philip Melanchthon 1: His Life and Influence
  15. The Theology of Philip Melanchthon 2: Loci Communes
  16. The Early Reformation Debates 1: The Eucharistic Controversy
  17. The Early Reformation Debates 2: The Pattern of Reformed Worship
  18. The Theology of the Augsburg Confession
  19. The Theology of the Formula of Concord
  20. The Life and Theology of Martin Bucer
  21. The Life and Theology of Peter Martyr
  22. The Life and Theology of Henry Bullinger 1: Life and Influence
  23. The Life and Theology of Henry Bullinger 2: The Decades of Theology
  24. The Theology of John Calvin 1: Life and Influence
  25. The Theology of John Calvin 2: The Institutes – Part 1
  26. The Theology of John Calvin 3: The Institutes – Part  2
  27. The Theology of John Calvin 4: Theology of Preaching
  28. The Theology of John Calvin 5: Calvin’s Polemics
  29. The Theology of John Calvin 6: The Sovereignty of God
  30. The Theology of John Calvin 7: Calvinism as a System