Introduction: This part of the website will be devoted to the study of Systematic Theology, and the promotion of a distinctly Puritan and Reformed view of Biblical doctrine for the glory of Christ, the promotion of sound doctrine, the practice of godliness as well as revival and reformation in the church. Theology is the study of God from His word, that is designed to sanctify our hearts and minds in the knowledge of the truth so that we might learn to live for Christ and His glory in obedience to God’s word and commandments. The heart and soul of sound Biblical doctrine, i.e. Theology, is that we might know and love God, be conformed into the image of Christ, and live for His glory. Otherwise, it is not Biblical Theology. It is not Christian Theology. It is false doctrine. Deut.6; John 8, 17:3; 2 Tim.1:13-14; Titus 1:1-3.
Testimony: It is my contention, speaking the truth in love, that the church has been corrupted over the years not only by false doctrine and the evil influence of Liberal Theology, but also the arrogance of academic theologians. There is a deep divide between the church and Seminary today, between preaching and the study of Theology. This is profane and destructive to the church as well as to the lives of believers. The greatest theologians of the church in the past (Augustine, Luther, Calvin, Bullinger, the Puritans, Jonathan Edwards, etc…) were preachers. And many of their greatest works were compilations of sermons from the pulpit or lectures in the afternoon to the church or to students. Sadly today most “modern theologians” are not preachers at all, but bookish academics that write theology with an air of decadence, worldliness, and a compromise with Neo-Orthodox heretics. As a result, preaching in the church is weak in Theology, and lectures in Theology in the schools are weak on devotion, love to God, and the Christian life. This has made the church shallow and profane, and the Seminary dull and unspiritual! Most Seminaries are useless now, as they only serve the academic theologians and their own ambition, instead of the students and their learning of sound doctrine, godly character, and Christian leadership. I still find it shocking and tragic today after 25 years in the ministry that I was able to read and study the Reformers and the Puritans more at U.C. Berkeley in my undergraduate work than at Westminster Seminary for a Master of Divinity. It is this kind of false academic theology that has corrupted Evangelical and Reformed churches today throughout the world, why Seminary professors are not powerful preachers, why churches are filled with ignorant pastors, and why so many Christians today are offended by strong Biblical Reformed preaching. True Theology should preach Christ from the Word and conform us into the image of Jesus Christ our Lord and Savior; and therefore True Theology is Theology that is preached on the Lord’s Day, as well as taught in the schools with conviction and devotion, zealously defended in the world against heresy, and that suffers persecution under the cross for the sake of righteousness after Christ and the Apostles, as well as the Reformers and Puritans. The best and most useful theologians are therefore pastors and teachers like the Reformers and Puritans, like John Calvin and Jonathan Edwards. When Theology is divorced from the faithful ministry of the word, it tends to become corrupted by the evil disease of a false and deceitful sort of scholasticism that tolerates heresy and idolatry and accommodates to modern Liberal accreditation standards and political correctness. It is my humble conviction that modern Evangelical and Reformed theologians today are soft, effeminate, compromising, and worldly; and therefore in the long run a bad influence on the church and the lives of believers.
It is for this reason that I hope to put all of my sermons, lectures, and theological works on the internet before looking for any publisher to have them published and sold. All of my sermons and lectures are Theological, committed to the exposition of Scripture and promoting a comprehensive Puritan and Reformed world and a life view. And so I preach Theology. The word of God is theological. The Gospel is sound doctrine. The knowledge of God and the Christian life is built on divine truth revealed in the inerrant and infallible Word of God. And the great problem with the church today and the struggle of many Christians is that they do not know sound doctrine. And so their knowledge of God, of Scripture, of the Christian life, of history, and of almost every area of thought and life are corrupted today. In Hosea 4:6 the Lord says, “My people are destroyed by a lack of knowledge.” In John 8:32 Jesus said, “If you know the truth, the truth will set you free.” The church needs preachers that are faithful in preaching and teaching sound doctrine. And Seminaries need more pastors and teachers who inspire a love for God and a devotion to Christ in life and service that does not compromise with political correctness, Feminist ideology, or Neo-Orthodox heretics. To that end, my pattern of preaching is always theological, of the Reformed and Puritan kind. Whether I am preaching through Matthew (440 sermons), the Acts of the Apostles (190 sermons on Acts 1-12, and ongoing) Galatians (80 sermons, Ephesians (120 sermons), Philippians (50 sermons), Colossians (50 sermons) Titus (40 sermons), the hundreds of topical sermons that I have preached; or my Lectures on Old and New Testament Survey, I am preaching and teaching Reformed Theology. I believe that reading Theological books are essential for a godly Christian life, but that they should be used in conjunction with strong Biblical preaching. Reading theological books, even the Puritans, should never replace the faithful ministry of the Word. The problem with the church today is that there are few preachers who actually preach Theology. I do have several sermons and lecture series that are specifically on Theology. You may want to start by listening to the sermon Loving God and the Study of Him as an example. Here is a list of most of my sermon and lecture series that are more particularly theological.
- On the Love of God – This is my best work and my greatest love, which is actually the largest theological treatise on the Love of God ever written. It is in 80 sermons, and around 1200 pages.
- The Triumph of God’s Grace: A Treatise on the Doctrines of Grace in 30 sermons. This is a defense of Reformed theology (the 5 Points of Calvinism) with a Puritan style of preaching and a pastoral emphasis.
- Living for God’s Glory: A Treatise on the Pursuit of God in 2 parts. Pt.1: The Pursuit of God – A Treatise on the First Commandment in 30 sermons. Living for God’s Glory, Pt.2: The Pattern of Sound Doctrine – A Treatise on the Five Solas of the Reformation in 50 sermons.
- Learning Christ and Living for His Glory: A Theology of the Christian Life in 150 sermons. It is the largest work on the Christian Life written since the 17th century Puritans.
- The Godly Pursuit of Reformation (50 sermons) – This is a series of sermons similar in nature and purpose to Calvin’s Treatise on the Necessity of Reforming the Church.
- A Brief Treatise on the Wrath of God in 15 sermons. This is a series that looks at the nature of God’s wrath as well as the manifestations of it revealed in the world through His providence in natural disasters and calamities.
- The Glory of Christ Revealed, in 30 sermons. A short series of sermons on the divine glory, Mediatorial office, and Saving Work of the Lord Jesus Christ.
- Christ and the Law of God: A Vindication of God’s Law in 30 sermons.
- The Theology of the Westminster Confession in 50 Lectures.
- 200 Short Lessons on the Westminster Larger Catechism.
- Apologetics to the Glory of God: A Treatise on Defending the Christian Faith – 100 sermons on 1 Pet.3:15. This is a comprehensive look at Apologetics in Puritan style sermons for pastors as well as Christians. This series is ongoing and will eventually be 200 sermons/lectures.
Warning: In studying Theology, Christians should be aware of the corrupting influences of false doctrine that are poisoning the church today, including cults, false religions, and the deviant forms of Christianity that misrepresent the teaching of the Word of God. While there are many Christians throughout the nation and the world, their knowledge of Scripture and sound doctrine is weak. And for this reason, there are many false prophets who prey upon them and seek to corrupt them by false doctrine. The church today and the lives of believers are being destroyed by this. By the time I was 24 I had become a thorough-going Puritan devoted to the Reformed Confessions, to Calvin and the Puritans. And I have learned over 25 years of ministry, preaching, teaching, defending the faith, counseling Christians in their personal lives, their marriages, and their families, that everything else is a misrepresentation of the Word of God, and therefore has a corrupting influence on the church and the lives of believers. This is my view of theological movements in the church today. I speak the truth in love for the church and the lives of believers.
- HERETICAL: These movements I believe are entirely heretical and damning.
- Liberal Theology (Schleiermacher, Ritschl, Rauschenbush) is pagan and demonic, and not Christian at all! It is the theology of Liberal Democrats and the demonic party of the Left. Listen to my sermon on Liberal Theology.
- Roman Catholic Theology (Aquinas, Chesterton, Kung, Merton, Rahner, Neuhaus, Kreeft) is the work of antichrist! The Pope of Rome is the antichrist, and pedophilia is the fruit of Roman Catholic idolatry. There may be many pro-life Jesus loving Catholics, but Roman Catholic doctrine is heresy. Listen to my sermons on the Pope of Rome is the antichrist and the Principles of Protestantism.
- Neo-Orthodoxy (Barth, Brunner, Bultmann, Niebuhr, C.S. Lewis, N.T. Wright) is heretical and subversive, and there are many people who are deceived by the clever but deceitful scholarship of these men! Neo-Orthodoxy is one of the greatest evils and curses on Evangelical and Reformed Churches today! They are heretics who deny the authority of Scripture, the substitutionary nature of the atonement, the Lordship of Jesus Christ, the abiding validity of the Moral Law, as well as the reality of eternal condemnation in hell. Listen to my sermon on Neo-Orthodoxy and the Making of James Comey. My lecture on the First Principles of New Testament Study has a clear and simple refutation of Neo-Orthodoxy.
- Broad Evangelicalism (Rick Warren, Joel Osteen, Fuller Seminary) is shallow, worldly, man-centered, and increasingly ungodly and apostate! As Paul says in Titus 1 “They profess to know God but by their works deny Him.” I have always been averse to Broad Evangelicalism since childhood upon memorizing the Ten Commandments and Jesus Sermon on the Mount. Broad Evangelicals today are blinded by a false Gospel derived from a theology of cheap grace, a great deal of idolatry, worldliness, and ungodliness. Listen to my sermon on Battling Broad Evangelicalism.
- Modern Pentecostalism (Benny Hinn, Oral Roberts, Pat Robertson, TBN) is Arminianism corrupted by a lot of ministerial deceit, greed, corruption, fabrications of the Spirit, and lying signs and wonders! I was saved and brought up in a Pentecostal-Fundamentalist church but left it in early college after realizing how much false doctrine, sexual immorality, covetousness, and religious hypocrisy is inherent to the Pentecostal movement and its leadership. Also, modern Pentecostalism today is no longer Fundamentalist as it was in the 1980’s. It is sadly now very worldly and corrupt. Listen to my 2 sermons on The Problem with Pentecostalism in the series on Acts 2. There are still many devout Christians within Pentecostalism that I dearly love. God give them grace and knowledge to repent of idolatry and false religion and reform their life and doctrine.
- HARMFUL: These movements are fundamentally Christian, but are also tainted by false doctrine, and therefore are often harmful and destructive to the church and to a godly Christian life.
- Conservative Evangelicalism (Billy Graham, James Dobson, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School) is sometimes no different than Broad Evangelism. But the two should be distinguished. They often try to be Calvinistic in their theology and serious in their study of the Bible and living the Christian life. They are a mixed group of folks though who are on the fence as to the sufficiency of Scripture and sound Biblical doctrine. And they are always compromising with Neo-Orthodoxy, Roman Catholic idolatry, modern psychology, feminism, and political correctness. God deliver them, and get reformed! And stop compromising with the world and with heretics!
- New Calvinism (Tim Keller, John Piper, and many others) is a popular movement in Evangelical and Reformed circles that claims to be devoted to preaching Christ and the doctrines of grace; but is in fact engulfed in a great deal of worldliness and pragmatism. I often call this movement Fake Calvinism. Many Christians today are not aware of the underlying false doctrine of this movement. New Calvinism is a subtle form of Antinomianism that has ties to Neo-Orthodoxy (C.S. Lewis), and has led to an increasing pattern of sin, idolatry, false religion, and ungodliness in the church by its promotion of false worship, covetous pastors, and a style of ministry that is worldly and not at all Christ-centered. The movement has contributed to a considerable degree of sexual immorality, broken marriages, and a corrupt youth culture in the church that is opposed to true Biblical reformation. Most of the pastors and leaders involved in this movement are corrupted by a cult of personal vanity and insatiable greed. Listen to my sermons on the New Calvinism. Or read ES Williams books The New Calvinists and Christian Hedonism; as well as The Pied Piper by Erich Burke. The New Calvinism is Fake Calvinism, and Christian Hedonism is a perversion of Biblical doctrine and the Westminster Shorter Catechism.
- Dispensational Fundamentalism (Jerry Falwell, jr and Liberty University, John MacArthur and the Master’s) is the most influential theological movement in the nation within the Conservative Protestant and Evangelical tradition. It has arguably done much good in the churches and the nation over the last 40-50 years preaching Christ, defending the fundamentals of the Faith, refuting Liberalism and Neo-Orthodoxy, and faithfully teaching the Bible. I grew up in the Fundamentalist movement, and am very thankful for much of the influence it had on me. But it is at the same time, in comparison to Reformed Theology, a very deficient system of doctrine that is in many ways destructive to a godly Christian life, to a godly Christian family, and to Biblical Reformation in the church and the nation. I left Dispensationalism at 22, having grown out of it during my college years while studying Church history and reading the Reformers. Listen to my sermon on The Dangers of Dispensationalism and my lectures on Studying the New Testament. I have many family members and Christian friends that are Dispensationalist, but they simply do not understand the Bible or Theology well.
- HURTFUL: These movements are in most parts solidly Biblical and Reformed, but because of the present spiritual downgrade in the church and denominations today, they are in the long run somewhat hurtful to sound doctrine, the godly pursuit of reformation, and a godly Christian life.
- The Reformed Baptists (Spurgeon, Al Martin, the Reformed Baptist Association) are a movement within Reformed theology that is pleasantly devoted to promoting Calvinist views and reading the Puritans, as well as God-centered worship, a godly Christian life, reformation in the family, evangelism and world missions, and godly leadership in the church and the ministry. Praise the Lord. But their baptist and individualistic views are unScriptural and unreformed, and therefore in the long run destructive to building a godly Christian family and the reforming of the nation and society. I was a Reformed Baptist for 2 years (age 22-24) until I became more thoroughly knowledgeable of Scripture and sound doctrine by reading the Reformers and the Puritans. See my sermons on Infant Baptism and Covenant Theology. Reformed Baptists moreover sadly have no clue of the Biblical doctrine of Civil Government in relation to Christ’s Lordship. And so they are still plagued by a strain of Antinomianism.
- Cheap Grace Presbyterianism (Most Conservative Presbyterian & Reformed Denominations) is the establishment version of Reformed theology today that has been influential in many ways for the good of the church and the blessing of many believers and their families. Most of my closest friendships are in these circles. In many instances though, modern Presbyterian and Reformed doctrine is a downgrade from the Reformers and Puritans as it often compromises with false doctrine, Broad Evangelicalism, Neo-Orthodoxy, Roman Catholic idolatry, and Political-Correctness. And sadly today, it is often anti-Puritan. Most Reformed Seminaries today have no interest in adhering to the Reformed Confessions, nor training pastors after the fashion of the Reformers and Puritans. In the long run, modern Presbyterian and Reformed doctrine is subversive to true Biblical Reformation, being overly effeminate and academic. When Hodge, Warfield, Vos, Murray, Sproul, Horton, and Frame are the leading theologians, Reformed theology and Reformed denominations are not sound or godly. None of these men are preachers, and none of them are Reformers or Puritans in the historic sense of the term! Listen to my 70 sermons on the Godly Pursuit of Reformation, especially the two on Cheap Grace Presbyterianism.
Pastors, theologians, and Christian scholars need to return to the Theology of the Reformers and the Puritans, to the Reformed Confessions and to Reformed Orthodoxy! John Calvin, Henry Bullinger, John Knox, William Perkins, William Ames, Thomas Watson, John Owen, Thomas Goodwin, Stephen Charnock, Jonathan Edwards, Samuel Willard, Gisbertus Voetius, Herman Witsius, and Francis Turretin. Not until then will the churches see true revival and godly reformation.
Foundations: I believe that sound Biblical doctrine is the framework of a godly life and family. And so wherever there is a fundamental defect in theological views, there will be a moral and spiritual defect in the Church and the Christian life. The study of Theology or sound doctrine is therefore essential to a godly Christian life. And therefore at the heart of a godly Biblical Christian education ought to be the study and memorization of not only Scripture; but the Reformed Confessions and Catechisms. This is where the study of Theology needs to begin. It is clear to me as a pastor, a teacher, a marriage counselor, and a father of 10, that one of the main reasons why pastors fall prey to false doctrine, why Christian families often suffer ruin, and why children and youth today are given over to such terrible patterns of sin and idolatry, is because they are not taught or trained from the beginning to love God and to be devoted to sound doctrine. Jesus said, “If you know the truth, the truth will set you free.” It is essential for churches and pastors, schools and teachers, and for parents, therefore, to learn the Reformed Confessions and Catechisms for themselves and to teach sound doctrine to their children and students. Martin Luther rightly said, “No one is too old or too smart to learn and study the catechism.” For this reason, it is important for parents and teachers to have a place and schedule for the kids to learn Christian doctrine at their respective age and comprehension level. The Children’s Catechism of 52 Questions called Milk for Babes is a great start for all ages, for children and for adults who may be new believers. We also have a Family Catechism of 200 Questions called Spiritual Food for Faithful Families. It is designed for more advanced students and parents. This Catechism is much easier to read and understand than the Westminster Shorter Catechism, though it is longer. The Shorter Catechism is the catechism to use for junior high and high school level youth and is certainly the greatest and most useful tool of instruction in Christian doctrine ever written. This should be used for young students as soon as they are able, and for new believers who come to faith in Christ later in life. Theology is always corrupted when it deviates from Scripture and the Reformed Confessions and Catechisms (i.e. Neo-Orthodoxy, Broad Evangelicalism, Pentecostalism, Dispensationalism, New Calvinism, Cheap Grace Presbyterianism). We recommend that folks should also use the Heidelberg Catechism after the Westminster Shorter Catechism is thoroughly digested. We have just recently made a revised and expanded edition of the Heidelberg Catechism for this purpose. Also very useful to use at the Junior high and the beginning of high school level is John Calvin’s small but very edifying book called, Instruction in Faith. By the junior and senior year of high school, Christian youth should then be able to read and study the Reformed Confessions, the Westminster Larger Catechism, and parts of John Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion, along with many of the great devotional writings of the Puritans. Some of the books we use for the student and high school level in teaching Theology include:
- Milk for Babes: A Children’s Catechism in 52 Questions
- Food for Families: A Family Catechism in 200 Questions
- The Westminster Shorter Catechism
- The Westminster Larger Catechism
- The Heidelberg Catechism (revised)
- The Reformed Confessions (Geneva, French, Scots, Belgic, Second Helvetic, Irish Articles, and especially the Westminster Confession)
- Thomas Vincent – The Shorter Catechism Explained from Scripture
- John Calvin – Truth for All Time
- John Calvin – Institutes of the Christian Religion
- Louis Berkhof – A Manual of Christian Doctrine
- John Frame – Salvation Belongs to the Lord
- Numerous Christian Classics and Puritan works
Students of Theology: The best books to use and study for College and Seminary students of Theology, or for pastors and Christian leaders include:
- The Reformed Confessions (Geneva, French, Scots, Belgic, Second Helvetic, Irish Articles, and especially the Westminster Confession)
- John Calvin – The Institutes of the Christian Religion
- William Ames – Marrow of Sacred Divinity
- Louis Berkhof – Systematic Theology
- Herman Bavinck – Our Reasonable Faith
- Thomas Watson – A Body of Divinity
- Thomas Boston – A Body of Divinity
- Wilhelm a Brakel – The Christian’s Reasonable Service
- Samuel Willard – A Body of Divinity
- Heinrich Heppe – Reformed Dogmatics
- Francis Turretin – Institutes of Elenctic Theology
- Joel Beeke – Reformed Systematic Theology
There are hundreds of other books that I believe are essential for advanced students of Theology as well as theological gifted pastors, in order to cultivate a disciplined and devoted mind that loves God and sound doctrine.
- Augustine – On the Trinity
- Augustine – The City of God
- Martin Luther – On the Bondage of the Will
- Henry Bullinger – The Decades
- Zacharias Olevianus – Commentary on the Heidelberg Catechism
- Stephen Charnock – Two Treatises on the Knowledge of God
- Stephen Charnock – The Attributes of God
- John Owen – Communion with God
- John Owen – The Glory of Christ
- John Owen – The Work of the Holy Spirit
- John Owen – Commentary on Hebrews
- John Flavel – Christ the Fountain of Life
- John Flavel – The Method of Grace
- Thomas Goodwin – Christ Our Mediator
- Edward Taylor – Christographia
- Thomas Ridgeley – Commentary on the Larger Catechism
- John Gill – Systematic Theology
- Peter Van Maastricht – Theoretical and Practical Theology
- Jonathan Edwards – Religious Affections
- Jonathan Edwards – On Original Sin
- Jonathan Edwards – The Freedom of the Will
- Charles Hodge – Systematic Theology, in 3 Volumes
- Herman Bavinck – Systematic Theology, in 4 Volumes
- Joel Beeke – A Puritan Theology: Doctrine for Life
- And many more which I will place on the 8 separate tabs.
There are a number of modern works on Systematic Theology that can be helpful in understanding the views of others today, though they are corrupted by false doctrine in places. I would include:
- Millard Erickson – Christian Theology. This is in the Conservative Evangelical tradition, but helpful in understanding Evangelicalism and various aspects of contemporary thought).
- Wayne Grudem – Systematic Theology. This is from a New Calvinism perspective, but helpful in understanding the best aspects of the New Calvinism movement. It has many simple and devotional insights.
- John MacArthur – Biblical Doctrine. This is, of course, Dispensational and has all the problems of Dispensational theology. But it is arguably the best that Dispensational theology can produce, and it has some very good insights as John is a good preacher and a skillful writer. Many of John’s books are insightful. I would especially recommend his books Our Sufficiency in Christ as a good work of devotional theology).
- Michael Horton – The Christian Faith. This is Cheap Grace Presbyterian that sadly accommodates to many Neo-Orthodox heretics. It is insightful at times with regard to Apologetics and contemporary thought. Horton is often annoyingly tedious as he quotes heretics approvingly in his books. Ugh! I wrote a review on Amazon.
- John Frame – Systematic Theology. This is in the Classical Reformed tradition with Frame’s particular view of Lordship Theology. Sadly this book is a patchwork from his other works and is heavily weighted on the doctrines of Scripture and God, with very little written on the subjects after. The book should never have been published until it was completed. His larger works are better and more useful for advanced theological study, though they are too philosophical for most pastors: The Doctrine of the Knowledge of God, The Doctrine of the Word of God, The Doctrine of God, The Doctrine of the Christian Life. John was one of my teachers at Westminster in the early ’90s and is easily the best and the brightest of academic Reformed theologians today. He is not a preacher or a reformer though by any means.
Once again though, all of these works on Systematic Theology show a considerable deficiency on account of their departure from the Puritans and Reformed Orthodoxy.
Some Quotes: Here are a few quotes that help to explain the nature of a true theologian to help all pastors and teachers love God first and serve Christ in the church above all selfish or academic ambitions.
*William Ames said, “Theology is not just a bare knowledge of God, but living unto Him and His glory through the knowledge of Jesus Christ and His word.”
*John Owen said, “Wherever there is ignorance of God, there cannot be any deep and holy love for Him.”
*John Milton said, “The end of all learning is to know God, and out of that knowledge to love and imitate Him.”
*The Shorter Catechism states beautifully: “The Word of God, which is contained in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, is the only rule to direct us how we may glorify and enjoy God.”
*John Calvin said, “Sound doctrine takes root not only in the head but in the heart, and further produces a life of practical godliness in conformity to Christ.”
*Martin Luther said, “Theologians are vain and wicked creatures that do nothing but prattle if they do not faithfully serve Jesus Christ and expound His word in opposition to all the imps of Satan in the world and the works of the antichrist.”
*Martin Luther said, “What makes a good theologian? Study, prayer, and temptation, as well as preaching, teaching, and suffering under the cross for Christ.”
*Jonathan Edwards said, “Our love for God will always be according to our knowledge of Him and of His perfections. Therefore if we would love God more, we must get to know Him better.”
*John Calvin writes, “The foundation of all sacred doctrine, true religion, and Christian practice is to be found in the Holy Scriptures which are the Word of God written.”
*Matthew Henry writes, “The names of God by which He reveals Himself are descriptive of His divine and holy person and the excellencies of His grace and salvation. And so we are to know and use them with the proper reverence, faith, love, affection, and hope.”
*John Trapp said, “There are three that bear record in heaven; and so there are three that deserve our knowledge, love, and obedience on earth.”
*Thomas Watson said, “We must have a saving knowledge of God through Jesus Christ and His word if we are at all to please Him and be accepted by Him.”
*Thomas Kempis said, “What good is any learning or study apart from the knowledge of God and love to Him? Christ teaches us that it is nothing. It is vanity. But when we love God and know Him well in and for the sake of Christ our Savior, all of our learning, as well as our life and efforts are blessed by Him.”
*Augustine said, “It is in knowing Thee Lord God as Thou art, that I am given to love Thee and to worship Thee.”
Brett Woody, Pastor-Teacher